Though many people do not have the tyramine problem, but this amino acid can induce intolerance allergic reactions in some people. Eating foods containing tyramine can cause hives and health problems such as asthma, and the most common side effects of migraine. Tyramine is formed naturally in food aging and protein decomposition process, so they are the most common in fermented or certain yeast-containing food.
Cheese : all aged cheese contain tyramine, which is a byproduct of the aging process. It should be noted that any food containing cheese, ricotta cheese and cream cheese without aging treatment, and therefore does not contain tyramine and are safe for consumption. The tyramine content level depends on the processing of food and aging concern with the bacteria.
Meat and fish : Under normal circumstances, the fresh meat and fish contain only a small amount of tyramine. However, prolonged storage (including cold storage) will increase the number of tyramine in meat protein degradation. Smoked, aged or fermented meats and fish contains a large amount of tyramine. Hot dogs, processed sandwich meat, bacon and ham has a very high tyramine content.
Yeast : Although most commercial bread is safe to eat, but the homemade yeast bread contains a lot of tyramine. In addition, a lot of canned, processed and frozen foods also contain yeast, it is necessary to check the label carefully.
Beans : All beans because of the breakdown of protein contains tyramine, such as soy milk, miso, bean curd, soy sauce.
Vegetables and fruit : ripe bananas, spinach and kimchi usually contains large amounts of tyramine. Most fruits contain a small amount of tyramine, and the number will increase as the aging process goes on. Also avoid all cooked fruits.
Leftovers : Any leftover foods also goes in the process of formation of tyramine. Therefore, nutrition experts recommend eating freshly cooked food. Leftover food should not be kept for more than 2 to 3 days in the refrigerator.
Beverages : beer, wine, whiskey and other liquors are rich in tyramine content. You must avoid the non-alcoholic beer. But it is safe to drink champagne, gin, vodka and Scotch whiskey, because of their low levels of tyramine.
Additives : should carefully check processed, canned and frozen food ingredient labels. They may contain some protein powder, which will increase the content of tyramine. In addition, the meat tenderizer agents or canned gravy contains large amounts of tyramine.
In addition, chocolate and coffee also has a small amount of tyramine. However, in the case of avocados food, the tyramine doesn’t affect adversely. and should limit the consumption of peanuts, Brazil nuts and coconut.
Biogenic amines in food: Effects of histamine and tyramine in the human.
8 ~ 40mg intake of histamine produces mild symptoms, if exceed 40mg produce moderate symptoms of poisoning, more than 100mg produce severe symptoms of poisoning. The tyramine over lOOmg will cause a migraine.
1000mg • kg-1 biogenic amines in food harmful to human health and cause a great deal of harm.
Histamine, tyramine role, the presence of other biogenic amines enhance the adverse effects of histamine and tyramine. Therefore, it is difficult to determine a standard to measure the toxicity of biogenic amines.
U.S. FDA study through large amounts of data outbreak of histamine poisoning, determine the level of harmful effects of histamine in food: 500mg • kg-1; EU regulations Scombroid fish histamine content shall not exceed 100 mg • kg-1, other food shall not exceed 100mg • kg-1, histamine tyramine shall not exceed 100 ~ 800mg • kg-1;